Ipad 2 does not catch WI-FI well
Last time in the article “Why Wi-Fi Doesn’t Work Well and How to Fix It. Part 1” we explained the basics of Wi-Fi signal transmission at length and length to our readers, considering many factors that can both harm and improve the performance of a wireless network. Now is the time to tie everything together in the real world and let wireless technology finally knock out opponents. sometimes literally.
As we mentioned earlier, previous attempts to organize such a test have failed because the results were too varied to be accurate. And yet we regrouped and came back with new test methods that turned out to be much more reliable and effective. In the picture below you can see a panoramic photo of our test “stand”. Basically, this is an empty office space in which we placed 60 Dell laptops and nine iPad and iPad 2 tablets. Then we selected five access points and their corresponding controllers (where necessary) and tested them in various scenarios. All in all, the rent was around 15,000, and the testing team ran the tests for three stressful days. Under normal conditions on this scale, few people have tested for interference on wireless networks.
We mentioned in the first part of this article that we do not know of a single case when tests were carried out at this level. Our goal was to test the performance of the access point under severe interference conditions and from the results deduce the answer: how the wireless technologies we previously studied behave in the real world. If you haven’t read our previous article, we strongly recommend that you read it now. Otherwise, the results, which we will discuss later, will not make sense.
Next, we will consider our competitors. access points; Explain how the tests were carried out and how the test results were analyzed. To give you a little hint, let’s say this: It turns out that there is no “one-to-one-fit-everywhere” product. The best results will vary according to the dynamics of the AP / client location. Which technology is most appropriate for your situation? Keep reading. and find out!
Hardware and methodology
Here’s a less beautiful (but more informative) look at our testing conditions:
As you can see, we ran line-of-sight tests, one within 3 meters from the access point and client, and the other. 20 meters away. The diagram shows line-of-sight tabletop areas and sectors within the route, but as you can see below, we did not actually encounter any obstacles. The third test, 30 meters away, was carried out in a large area of the break room, which excluded a direct data transfer route.
We used a wired network to which we connected the access point under test. For all tests, we used an AP (access point) and all the network infrastructure required to operate. For example, Ruckus and Aruba APs required wireless controllers, while HP and Apple did not. In addition to this, the IxChariot endpoint (version 7.1) was running a database server. a program that sends data in both directions, and also sends results reports back to the host computer, which was running on a separate mounted communication node. We also enabled a second IxChariot endpoint on the wireless client connected to the access point.
Our hardware was like this:
iPad Running Slow And WiFi Problem And Fix, How To Fix WiFi And Slow Performance Issue on iPhone
Access points tested
- Apple AirPort Extreme: Dual-Band 802.11n (3×3: 2) Standalone Version 7.5.1.
- Aruba AP125: Dual Band 802.11n (3×3: 2) with Aruba 3200 Controller running ArubaOS (v18.104.22.168).
- Cisco Aironet 3502i: Dual Band 802.11n (2×3: 2) with Cisco 4402 Controller (rev. 22.214.171.124).
- HP E-MSM460: Dual Band 802.11n (3×3: 3) Standalone, Working Version 126.96.36.199-01-9514.
- Meraki MR24: Dual-band 802.11n (3×3: 3) working with Meraki Enterprise Cloud Controller.
- Ruckus ZoneFlex 7363: Dual Band 802.11n (2×2: 2) with Ruckus ZoneDirector 1106 (version 188.8.131.52.38).
We added Apple devices to the tested products for two reasons. First, we needed an example of a good consumer-grade router / access point as a basis for comparison with an enterprise-grade networking device, as many consumers and small business people are puzzled by the large price gap between these two groups. Secondly, readers complained that we often miss Apple products and don’t test them. Well. today they are present in our review.
Of the six access points (APs), only Meraki and HP have three-stream configurations with three antennas (3×3: 3). In fact, these were the only two 3×3: 3 APs that we found on the market just at the time of the start of the tests. The Aruba AP125 is a fairly standard model for this company and has already gained some notoriety. Likewise, Ruckus’ 2×2: 2 ZoneFlex 7363 barely makes it to the middle of the list of the company’s best products. The Cisco 3500 is a state-of-the-art high-performance AP from the networking giant.
We also want to point out that most of the access points discussed in this article use omnidirectional antennas, which we mentioned many times in the previous part of the review. Ruckus, which we talked about last time, and Meraki, described here, are an exception. To the untrained eye, the Meraki and Ruckus seem very similar in design, each with directional antennas in a nearly circular pattern. However, Meraki uses Flat Inverted F Antennas (PIFA). The larger ones are for 2.4 GHz and the smaller ones are for 5 GHz, leaving only three antennas per frequency band. Next, we will find out how rotation affects products with a similar design.
For our single client, we used a Dell Latitude E6410 with the following technical data:
- Intel Core i7-620M (2.67 GHz),
- 4 GB RAM,
- Centrino Ultimate-N 6300 (3×3: 3),
- Windows 7 Professional (64-bit),
- Mains powered on in all tests.
Each test on this client was run four times, with the laptop rotated 90 degrees for each case. Throughput values are the arithmetic mean of these four results.
For our 5 GHz interference and stress tests, we used 60 Dell Vostro 3500 laptops with the following specs:
- Intel Core i3 2.27 GHz,
- 3 GB RAM,
- DW1520 Wireless-N WLAN half-mini card adapter (Broadcom, driver 184.108.40.206),
- Windows XP Professional SP3,
- Mains powered on in all tests.
Last but not least, we used five Apple iPad 2 tablets to better understand the impact of ultra mobile devices on a mixed wireless network. Astute readers will probably remember from the first part of the article that we talked about the presence of nine iPad and iPad 2 devices in our laboratory. However, to be honest, we ended up using test data from only five iPad 2 tablets. figure in the results we eventually recorded, as all of the client’s antenna designs had to be the same. At least they look great in photos.
We solve the problem ourselves
Before “picking” the iPhone, first it is better to check for faults in the router itself. This is easy to do. Check how other devices work when connected to a Wi-Fi network. If the internet speed is stable and good, then the problem is not with the router, but with your iPhone.
What to do? What measures should be taken if the iPhone 6 or iPad does not catch Wi-Fi well and stubbornly refuses to see the network?
Draw your attention to! If the iPad cannot connect to the network or does not see it, the solutions are the same as with iOS smartphones.
Alternative DNS server
When performing all kinds of operations for connections with wireless networks in Apple tablets, all the required data is obtained automatically. If this does not happen, it often becomes necessary to enter everything manually. To do this, the user must:
- Enter access point password.
- Set the icon opposite the item “Advanced”.
- Click on DHCP.
- In the section that appears, select “Custom”.
- Enter password for connection.
- When the “Custom” tab opens, you need to enter the following data: IP address. 192.168.1.7 or 192.168.0.7; gateway. 192.168.1.1; network prefix length. 24, DNS1. 220.127.116.11, DNS2. 18.104.22.168.
- Connect connection.
How to fix problems with your tablet
There are several ways to set up the Internet on a gadget.
Setting a different broadcast channel
The Internet distribution device may not match the broadcast channels or standards with the tablet itself. In such cases, the user is required to change these settings, since the tablet may not support the channel established by the router. At the moment, there are several such channels:
The user is required to check the data, which specific mode is currently activated. To do this, go to the parameters of the dispenser and select “Advanced settings”. In this section, find “General” and in the “Wireless mode” line set 802.11 b / g / n mixed.
Note! It is a standard channel that is suitable for most common gadgets.
The presented method is able to fix most of the problems that arise, not only with the ability to connect to a wireless network, but also all kinds of other violations of the device. To carry out a forced reboot from the user, it is required to simultaneously hold down two keys under the names “Home” and “Shutdown”. After some time has passed, the tablet display will go out and reboot. After waiting for a certain time, you can try to re-establish the connection. In addition, if you have access to the router, then it is recommended to restart it in order to surely solve the problem.
What to do if the problem is with the router?
If, after checking the connection of other devices, it turns out that the router is to blame, the following options can help:
- Restarting iPhone sometimes saves.
- Reset the router settings using the “RESET” button. However, if you are unable to re-configure the device, it is better to consult the wizard.
- Go to the router interface and change the region “Russia” to “America”.
- Sometimes changing WPA2 / WPA to WEP helps. Of course, this is an old and unreliable encryption method, but in some cases it helps to restore the connection to the Wi-Fi network.
Ipad does not catch WI-FI well what to do
If the iPad does not pick up the Wi-Fi network well, this is a sign of a possible problem with one of the devices: the router or the tablet itself. Slow Internet at work or at home may also be the fault of the operator or provider, since the data transfer is from the servers at a low speed. The user is required to identify the true reason and understand why the connection is slow or not at all.
iPhone or iPad won’t connect to Wi-Fi
This is the most common problem and there are several solutions. But first, it would be nice to decide. what is the reason for the connection problems? To do this, you can try to connect another phone (smartphone, tablet) to the router. If everything connected well, then
The problem is in the router
Similar to the previous point. there are a few simple steps.
- Resetting the router settings. Here you need to do everything carefully, because if you do not know how to reconfigure it again, it is better not to do this.
- In the parameters, we change the region of use to the United States. Unfortunately, the location of this option is highly dependent on the router manufacturer. And it is not possible to show where it is on any router.
- Since we got so far, we try to change the encryption settings from WPA2 / WPA to WEP here. Even though it is an older encryption protocol (wikipedia) it did help some users (as reported on Apple tech support forums).
IPhone or iPad is to blame for the lack of connection
The first step is to follow a few simple steps:
- We reboot (turn on-turn off).
- We check the correctness of the password. yes, it sounds corny, but it is really very important.
- If you have already connected to this network before, click “forget this network” and try again.
- Check if the latest software (firmware) is installed.
- Resetting the network settings on the device (how to).
- If the Wi-Fi icon on the iPhone (iPad) is not active (gray), then almost certainly the problem is hardware and it will be quite difficult to solve it without visiting the service center.
Wi-Fi on iPhone and iPad. problems and solutions
Hey! From my own experience, I can note that all problems associated with the Wi-Fi module on the iPhone and iPad (inability to connect, poor signal reception, various connection failures) are quite rare and not very common. But this does not make them less important, because using a device without the Internet means depriving yourself of half the pleasure. Why are there half
For most modern people, the lack of access to the network is, at the very least, a huge disaster. And as a maximum. HUGE TROUBLE AND TOTAL HOPE. And it is imperative to fight this outrage! Therefore, today I will tell you what can and should be done when various problems with the wireless network appear on your gadget.
iPhone or iPad does not pick up the Wi-Fi network well
A weak signal on an iOS device is not a good life, most often this problem occurs due to:
- Falls, moisture and other mechanical damage.
- Poor quality repair. The fact is that the module itself, which is responsible for wireless connections, is quite easy to damage when disassembling the device (especially for the iPhone 4 and 4S models).
- Manufacturing defects. Yes, any technology can be defective in production and Apple is no exception.
The user, with this problem, can take not so many manipulations, because it is impossible to increase the Wi-Fi signal strength on the iPhone or iPad (not by hardware or software), but it still makes sense to pay attention to something:
- To begin with, we return to the points that are described above in the text in the previous subheading, all these tips are valid for this problem.
- If the router has external antennas, check their condition. damage, and if they are simply not unscrewed?
- If the device starts to catch Wi-Fi poorly after a firmware update, it is likely that a full reset and subsequent restore from a backup will help.
In fairness, it should be noted that all the malfunctions described in the article are quite rare. In most cases, the wireless connection in Apple devices works correctly and flawlessly.
If you have tried all the methods described in the article, and the problem persists, then it makes sense to contact the service center. Fortunately, in most cases, the price tag for Wi-Fi repair services on iPhone and iPad is quite humane.
Wi-Fi not working on iPhone or iPad: possible solutions
Among all the problems faced by the owners of mobile gadgets, poor performance or complete lack of Wi-Fi connection is one of the most common. Usually the fault is due to incorrect user settings of one of the devices (router or smartphone), but sometimes it is not possible to resolve this situation without intervention at the hardware level.
Below we will consider the most effective methods of Wi-Fi treatment in terms of the ratio of the total number of attempts to successful ones. That is, it is these methods that most often help users solve the problem with this type of wireless connection.
On a router (router)
Reboot your router. No matter how trite it may sound, restarting the router in some cases really helps to improve the operation of the wireless network on iOS.
Change the encryption method (this is often the reason iOS devices don’t want to connect to Wi-Fi).
Reset your router (router) to factory settings.
On iPhone or iPad (reboot, “forget network”, reset network settings, flashing)
Naturally, the first step is to take a full range of measures to eliminate a possible error in the iOS settings, moving through the list from the simplest to the most complex:
Turn Wi-Fi off and on in Control Center, restart your device.
If the iPhone or iPad does not connect to the Wi-Fi network correctly, try to “forget” the network. To do this, open the Settings application, go to the Wi-Fi section and click on the “i” icon next to the signal strength icon.
If this does not help, reset the network settings. To do this, go to the path: Settings → General → Reset and click on Reset network settings.
In some cases, you can use the Software Restore procedure. How the Software Update differs from the Software Restore, as well as how this process is performed, we described in detail in this material.
Eliminate external causes (interference, covers)
First of all, you should make sure that there is no interference with the signal. If there is no microwave oven between the router and the smartphone, in which there are several working radiotelephones, then it should pass unhindered. Most often, the problem lies in covers and bumpers, which were made by shortsighted craftsmen from metal materials. removing such an accessory can remove the issue of unstable Wi-Fi connection.
Wi-Fi not working on iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch? First aid
Usually, iPhone owners (with no signs of damage) have no complaints about cellular communication or Wi-Fi, but sometimes annoying incidents do occur. The problem manifests itself in different ways: in the form of a connection icon that has suddenly become gray and inactive, routing failures, incredibly slow data transfer speed.
Reset network settings
Do not forget that a general reset of all settings leads to the deletion of important information. IP address, data on DNS servers, user logins and passwords, etc. Therefore, it will be quite logical to carry out only “Reset network settings”, this item is located along the path: Settings. Basic. Reset. Reset network settings. Now that the network settings, among which there could be erroneous data, have been reset, in theory everything should work normally. We connect to Wi-Fi and check, and if the problems continue, go to the next step of the instruction.
Data backup and recovery
Not all ordinary users understand the meaning of this function, many are even annoyed by the need to spend time and effort copying data. However, this technique was invented for a reason and in some cases it is a real “magic wand” in solving complex problems. Usually, the iCloud cloud service is used to store backups, but for a situation with a non-working Wi-Fi, it is worth putting another copy in iTunes in advance. Having two backups is preferable to one. following the standard instructions, create one on iCloud and one on iTunes. Now, if something happens to the Wi-Fi settings, network connections or other system data, it is enough to simply restore the data from the saved array. The process is simple, but it takes some time, depending on the amount of information that is sent to the cloud and back.
The easiest, logical and fastest way to eliminate most temporary glitches during device operation is to reboot (turn off and on). It is enough just to hold down the “Power” button and hold it for several seconds until the “Turn off” slider appears and turn off the device. If the device “freezes”, then you need to hold down the Power and Home buttons for 10-15 seconds to force shutdown.
Usually, after turning it on, everything works fine and you just need to re-click on the Wi-Fi connection icon.
Still not resolving your Wi-Fi issue? Reboot the router
Sometimes the source of glitches is not a smartphone, but a Wi-Fi router, a third-party device with its own firmware, which also has bugs. You can try to solve the problem by simply rebooting it, by turning off / on the power. If a connection is established, but the data transfer rate is suspiciously low, it makes sense to tinker with the settings of the DNS servers. True, this is a malfunction of the network equipment, and not of a smartphone or tablet, so the system administrator should deal with its correction.
If other devices connect to the Wi-Fi router without problems, and a specific iPhone or iPad is still junk, it’s time, unfortunately, to contact the service center.
WI-FI does not work on the iPad tablet: reasons and ways to eliminate the problem
According to statistics, one of the common problems is situations when WI-FI does not work on iPad. To understand the issue and understand why the ipad does not catch WI-FI well, consider some features of the device.
- In some models, mini or air, the WI-FI and Bluetooth module is not only attributed by Apple to outside the main board, but is also located on another part.
- iPad has another important component. an antenna, which is equipped with a working surface and a special coaxial cable that connects it directly to the module.
With regard to the reasons for the deterioration or loss of the Wi-Fi signal, they can be classified into the following categories:
Drops and shocks are at the root of the problem and cause both damage to the antenna and deformation of the surface of the case, which pulls part of the antenna with it and impairs its functionality. Significant deterioration of the signal reception function or complete failure of the antenna. the consequences of the situation.
- Broken coaxial cable.
The provoking factors are the same. these are mechanical influences. As a result, the cable breaks, which is fixed to the polyphonic speaker.
A characteristic symptom of the problem is the complete absence of a list of Wi-Fi networks in the corresponding section of the iPad settings.
As mentioned earlier, it is located on the Wi-Fi module board. If iPad is dropped and damaged, it may crack and break contact.
- Software glitches or incorrect settings.
The most simple problems from the point of view of their solution. As for the settings, the owner of the device himself can believe their correctness and restore the correct option. It is better to eliminate software failures by contacting a service center.
Repair depending on the cause of the breakdown
Let’s say your ipad does not catch WI-FI well, and you yourself tried to solve the problem, but to no avail. The next, and most importantly, effective step is to contact our center, which will provide a number of services necessary in this situation. Now questions probably arise. what is the price of the service, is it necessary to replace the component, where exactly to bring the iPad? We answer in detail:
- New branches were opened in Kharkov, Kiev, Dnieper and Zaporozhye. You can choose a branch located in your city.
- You can get acquainted with the price list for 2020 on the company’s website or in the department to make a preliminary calculation.
- At the initial stage, a thorough diagnosis is carried out in order to obtain information about the causes of the problem and the consequences that have arisen.
- Based on the data obtained, the masters of the center make the choice of an effective method of repair / restoration, replacement of components is also possible.
- After repair, we perform testing and, at the request of the client, deliver the iPad by courier to the specified address.
Don’t forget that the iPad is a complex device in terms of design features that will not tolerate the intervention of an amateur. You shouldn’t skimp on saving him!
Perform a forced reboot
To start looking for a solution to the problem with poor Wi-Fi reception on the iPhone, you should start with the easiest way. to perform a forced reboot. It helps to clear the iOS software errors that have occurred, including even those that at first glance are related to the “hardware”. In order to force restart the iPhone, you need to hold down the Power and Home buttons (the volume down button on the iPhone 7/7 Plus) and hold them until the Apple logo appears on the screen. After turning on the device, you should check the correct operation of Wi-Fi.
Set a different channel for broadcasting Wi-Fi
This method is especially helpful for people who live in apartment buildings, literally teeming with Wi-Fi networks. The vast majority of networks operate at standard settings, broadcasting on the same channel. Installing a different Wi-Fi network broadcast channel makes it possible to significantly speed up the connection.
However, you will have to find the option to select the broadcast channel in the settings of your router yourself. The fact is that the interfaces for managing routers have a different appearance, which is why, alas, we cannot give the exact location of the necessary settings. Note that most often the option to change the Wi-Fi channel is available in the advanced connection settings.
Poorly catching Wi-Fi on iPhone. what to do
Bad Wi-Fi on iPhone? iPhone constantly disconnects from Wi-Fi and resumes working only after a while? Has Wi-Fi speed dropped noticeably on iPhone and isn’t bouncing back? If you encounter any of these problems, this guide will definitely help.
Reconnect to a Wi-Fi network
Also, quite often, a banal reconnection to the network helps to solve the problem with a poor iPhone Wi-Fi connection. For this:
Go to Settings → Wi-Fi.
Choose a wireless network that is slow.
Click Forget This Network.
Search for wireless networks and connect to the network you just deleted.
Note that after resetting the Wi-Fi network password, you will need to re-enter.
Reset network settings
One of the most powerful ways to fix poor Wi-Fi connection on iPhone is to reset your device’s network settings. It is performed as follows:
Go to the menu “Settings” → “General” → “Reset”.
Click “Reset Network Settings”.
After the network settings have been reset successfully, you can check if the iPhone is faster on your Wi-Fi network.
An access point to the Internet is a combination of various parameters, each of which can affect the level of quality of a wireless signal. In case of incorrectly set settings or incorrectly selected parameters, the Wi-Fi network shows a low communication signal.
iPad Not Connecting To WiFi? Here’s The Real Fix.
To set the settings correctly? you need to find the following parameters:
- Transmit Power. All modern modems are equipped with it. This parameter is the signal strength used when transmitting by the Wi-Fi access point. Manufacturers initially set this figure at 40% or even 20%. This strength is enough to cover only one room with the Internet, while in other residential premises the signal level will remain low. To remedy the situation, Transmit Power needs a gradual increase and a simultaneous check of the communication level.
- Mode. For high-speed Internet, this indicator should be at the level of the 802.11n standard. Mixed values are often set, at which the access points automatically switch to a slower mode G. Hence, the lower quality of coverage.
The problem of poor wireless internet at home is becoming more and more urgent. At the same time, quite often the user has to deal with it on his own, since difficulties of this kind are not within the competence of the provider, and the service center, as a rule, is limited only to making a result directly about the breakdown or malfunction of the equipment after testing it.
iPad WiFi Problem And Fix, How To Fix WiFi Issue on iPhone or iPad
However, in the vast majority of cases, users are able to resolve difficulties on their own, since there are not so many reasons for a poor Wi-Fi signal and most of them can be solved on their own at home.
Why does internet speed drop? From diagnostics to problem solving. the following is about this
The picture shows a menu where you can change the channel and range (for example, a TP-Link router):
One of the most common reasons for apartment buildings. The point is in the limited number of radio channels that are usually used as access points on standard modems. In our country, their number is 13, but Europeans have to be content with only 11 available points. At the same time, radio channels that do not have any effect on each other are only 3 pieces.
Checking for overload is simple. If more than 10 access points are found on a laptop, you can be sure that the range is congested. Accordingly, as the number of such radio signals increases, the quality of the Internet will deteriorate.
To solve the problem, you can use the selection method, as a result of which there is a chance to find the least loaded channel. However, it should be borne in mind that such a high density of access points implies a constant change in the load of radio channels during the day, so sometimes this method becomes useless.
In such a situation, the most effective, but also quite expensive solution is to switch to another 5 GHz Internet band, which almost always remains free, and there are no problems with crossing frequencies.
Weak antenna signal
The hardware part of routers also plays an important role in the level of quality of the Internet connection, which determines the cost of equipment. As a rule, cheap devices are equipped with a weak antenna, which is enough to distribute the Internet signal only in one room.
In this case, you can strengthen the Wi-Fi signal by purchasing an additional antenna, which can then be connected to a wireless computer adapter. But this option is not suitable for laptops and netbooks that lack the appropriate connector.
Wrong location for the router
An equally common cause of poor Wi-Fi signal, most often caused by hardware installers. In order to save time, the router is installed right in the corridor or in the closest room, where the Internet is then set up, showing the full scale of signal reception. However, if you want to use the resources of the global web in rooms remote from the modem, it is found that the signal is too weak or disappears altogether.
To fix the problem, you need to choose the right place for the router. In the process of choosing the most optimal location, you can use any mobile gadget, with which you can subsequently walk around the house and identify the signal levels. You need to install the modem at the point that shows the highest degree of Internet access.
It is important to take into account that in the presence of a large house with several floors and floors made of concrete, it is advisable to additionally install Wi-Fi repeaters at the very top of the dwelling. When connecting such repeaters to the main modem, it is better to use cables, which makes it possible to prevent loss of Internet speed.
Tip: Sometimes bringing phones, laptops or tablets too close to the modem can degrade the signal quality. For this reason, it is important to maintain a minimum distance of a couple of meters between devices.
Often Wi-Fi is bad on a laptop for the following reasons:
- Weak signal. As you know, the range of coverage of a wireless network in open areas is limited to 40 meters. However, in rooms, the signal is obstructed by walls. over, the more complex the structure of the walls, the worse the signal will pass. The most obvious and simple solution to this problem is to install the router in the center of the room.
- Poor quality equipment. A weak Wi-Fi signal on a laptop and, accordingly, low Internet speed may be due to poor quality of the router. In this case, it is optimal to purchase new high-quality equipment.
There is no doubt that Hewlett and Packard are ingenious developers who gave the world great hardware and trouble-free software. But, as practice shows, often HP laptops do not catch Wi-Fi well.
What is the reason? As a rule, this is due to incorrect operation of the hardware after the update has occurred in the presence of new versions of Windows 10 and Windows 7.
What to do in such a situation? To fix the problem, you need to download the HP Support Assistant.
After starting, go to the section “My PC”, then. “Updates”, where you need to download the adapter update for Wi-Fi “Broadcom”. As a result, a significant expansion of the list of available networks, as well as a full scale of signal reception.
This can happen not only on HP laptops. It would be more correct to say that it is PCs running Windows 10 that often face the problem of turning off Wi-Fi due to updates and incorrectly installed drivers.